Santo Domingo .- With the aim of making the world aware of one of the most deadly diseases in the world, World Day Against Cancer
This year's theme is "We Can. I can, "which offers an opportunity for people to reflect and think about what needs to be done to engage and act with people who suffer from this evil
Cancer is a generic term for a group of diseases that can affect any part of a person's body regardless of age, sex or region.
According to United Nations (UN) data, cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for about 8.2 million deaths worldwide and the number is expected to continue to rise and exceed 13.1 million in 2030.
About 70% of cancer deaths occur in low-middle-income countries.
A characteristic and leading cause of cancer death is the process of "metastasis" which is the rapid multiplication of abnormal cells that extend beyond normal limits and can invade adjacent parts of the body and spread to other organs
The World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that lung, liver, stomach, colorectal, and prostate cancer are the five cancers that in 2015 caused the greatest number of deaths in men.
While in women it was breast, lung, colorectal, cervical, and stomach cancer.
Children may have cancer in the same parts of the body as adults, but with their differences.
The most common cancer in children is leukemia, as well as brain tumors, lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcoma.
Cancer can start anywhere on the human body
Types of cancer
Types of cancer
According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) there are more than 100 cancers that are named after the organs or tissues where cancers form, but can also be called according to the type of cells that the cancers form. Form.
Here we show which are the most frequent and lethal:
Colorectal or colon cancer
It is the most common worldwide. However, it is one of the easiest to diagnose by making it easier to detect it early, resulting in high cure rates.
This type of cancer can be due to five main causes: advanced age (over 65), low-fat and low-fiber diets, inherited genetic predisposition, medical history of colon or rectum polyps, ulcerative colitis, cancer of Breast, uterus or ovaries; And an inadequate lifestyle.
Prostate cancer is the most common within the male population with 27,853 new cases per year.
It is often related to genetic, hormonal, environmental factors (automobile smoke, pollution, chemicals, etc.) and sexual transmission.
Lung cancer is responsible for the largest number of cancer deaths worldwide, with 1.59 million deaths.
The onset of this type of cancer is usually caused by: tobacco (main cause), exposure to carcinogens (asbestos, uranium, petroleum derivatives, etc.), genetic predisposition, marijuana use, inflammation in the lung , Excess or deficiency of vitamin A and air pollution.
It is the cancer with more incidence and greater degree of mortality among the feminine sex.
Although more than 99 percent of diagnoses occur in women, breast cancer may also occur in men.
Although the causes are not yet known, several risk factors have been identified, such as advanced age, family history of breast cancer, reproductive factors (early rule, late menopause, etc.), cancer Breast cancer, high breast density, ionizing radiation, obesity and alcohol consumption
Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent being the ninth worldwide.
Possible causes are tobacco (being the main one), exposure to chemical substances (such as metals, dyes or gums) and its relation to the human papillomavirus.
Cancer of the stomach
Worldwide, it has 723,000 deaths a year.
Although the exact causes are unknown, it is known that there are some risk factors such as a diet low in fruits and vegetables, tobacco, having suffered certain diseases and genetics.
Cancer of the kidney
The specific factors that determine its occurrence are unknown, although several studies identify some risk factors such as sex, smoking or certain painkillers, obesity, exposure to cadmium and asbestos, and some very serious genetic diseases. Rare such as von Hippel-Lindau or tuberous sclerosis.
Pancreatic cancer has a fairly high mortality rate, with more than 4,000 deaths annually in Spain.
Although specific causes are currently unknown, there are some factors that contribute to their appearance: advanced age (usually between 65 and 70 years), genetics, sex, race, tobacco use, eating or Diabetes.
Each year 3-10 cases of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are diagnosed per 100,000 inhabitants, and can occur in almost any part of the body.
Although most of the time there is no clear risk factor, more and more microbes are implicated as causative agents.
Therefore, we can determine as risk factors immunological problems, treatments that affect immunity and transplants, in addition to age.
Leukemia is a blood disease, considered "cancer of the blood", which, according to data from the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) of 2014, affects 2.4 percent of the population.
In most cases a specific cause can not be established, however, there are a number of risk factors such as having received chemotherapy or radiotherapy, suffering from a genetic disorder (such as Down syndrome), exposure to agents Toxic and family history.
Breast cancer is the one with the highest incidence and degree of mortality among females
Figures and cancers in RD
According to statistics from Glocoban, a United Nations agency, in the Dominican Republic there is a prevalence of 500 thousand cases of cancer, about 13 thousand new cases of cancer per year.
Breast cancer, cervico-uterine, prostate, lung, neck, and colon cancer are more common in the country, with the first three being the most common in men and women
The medical director of the Rosa Emilia Sánchez Pérez de Tavares (Incart) National Cancer Institute, Giovanni Báez, explains that in the center they have approximately 3,000 registered cases of cancer patients.
"Cancer can be divided into solid tumors and liquid tumors; The solids are lung cancer, liver, breast cancer, prostate cancer and among the liquid tumors we counted the group of leukemias and lymphomas, "said Baez.
These can also be classified by tissue origin, called carcinomas that are those that originate in the epithelial tissue, either skin or mucosa; The adenocarcinomas if they come from the glandular epithelium and sarcomas that are originated in tissue.
The doctor states that in the institute there are registered 1,071 male patients with lung, prostate and colon cancer; While in women it is more frequent the breast and uterine.
Báez indicates that "worldwide tumors are more frequent in men and autoimmune diseases in women."
However, it assumes that women take better care of their health than men, because of the frequency and quantity of women in the country's hospitals.
Recommendations and treatments
The specialist explains that cancer could be prevented by avoiding the main risk factors and using prevention strategies
"We can not avoid what we inherit from our parents but if we help avoiding smoking and alcohol, maintaining a diet rich in fruits, low in fat and salt and at the same time exercising. First of all, the key word against cancer is prevention. "
There are many treatments for cancer, but it depends on the type of cancer and how advanced it is.
The main types of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, hormonal, stem cell transplantation, etc.
This year's campaign theme
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